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Fire knowledge small training


2021-08-30


1. Definition of fire A disaster caused by uncontrolled burning in time and space.

 

2. Classification of fire Fires are divided into four categories: A, B, C, and D. 1. Class A fire: refers to a solid material fire. This substance tends to be organic in nature and generally produces glowing embers when burned. Such as wood, cotton, wool, linen, paper fires, etc. 2. Class B fires: Refers to liquid fires and meltable solid fires. Such as gasoline, kerosene, crude oil, methanol, ethanol, asphalt, paraffin fire, etc. 3. Class C fire: refers to gas fire. Such as coal gas, natural gas, methane, ethane, propane, hydrogen fire, etc. 4. Class D fire: refers to metal fire. Refers to potassium, sodium, magnesium, titanium, zirconium, lithium, aluminum-magnesium alloy fires, etc.

 

3. The policy of fire protection: elimination means elimination, and prevention means prevention. Prevention first, combination of prevention and elimination

 

4. How to deal with fire

On the fire scene, the development of the fire generally goes through four stages, namely the initial stage, the development stage, the violent stage and the extinguishing stage. In the initial stage, the fire is relatively easy to extinguish and control. According to the survey, more than 45% of the initial fires are extinguished by the parties or volunteer firefighters. How should we respond to the first fire?

1. The popularization of fire protection knowledge is the basic condition for successfully extinguishing the initial fire

Units, departments, and every family member should continuously improve the awareness of learning and training firefighting knowledge, and enhance self-defense and self-rescue capabilities, such as participating in various firefighting trainings, visiting fire stations, subscribing to popular fire science books, and clicking on firefighting websites, etc. Through various forms of learning and training, possessing certain fire fighting knowledge and skills is the basic condition for successfully fighting an initial fire. On the evening of August 26, 2002, a fourth-grade student at Suqian Experimental Primary School was alone at home because his father and mother accompanied his grandfather to see a doctor in the hospital. At that time, there was a power outage, and he lit a candle and lay on the bed to read a book. When he fell asleep, the candle accidentally burned out, igniting the mat and waking him up. Seeing the fire, he didn't panic, but calmly ran to the bathroom to get a wet pillow towel for wiping the floor, covered the flames, and the fire was extinguished. The student's ability to successfully deal with the initial fire came from the "Primary School Fire Fighting Textbook" presented to primary school students by the Jiangsu Provincial Fire Brigade.

2. Timely and accurate alarm is the key to control the spread of fire

No matter when and where a fire occurs, call the police immediately. On the one hand, a fire alarm signal should be sent to the surrounding people. The command center called the police. Regardless of the size of the fire, as long as a fire is found, the fire command center should be called. Even if the fire is capable of being extinguished, the fire should generally be called. Because the development of the fire is often unpredictable, such as improper fire fighting methods, insufficient understanding of the nature of the fire substance, or limited effectiveness of fire extinguishing equipment, etc., may cause a fire due to failure to control the fire.

3. Evacuation and rescue of trapped persons is the primary task at the beginning of a fire

When a fire breaks out, volunteer firefighters and other personnel on the scene must adhere to the principle that saving people is more important than fighting fires. Especially in places where people are concentrated, it is necessary to take safe and reliable measures, actively organize the evacuation of people, and use shouting guidance to stabilize the emotions of trapped people. , Open evacuation channels and other measures in time, and actively rescue people trapped by fireworks. As long as the method is proper, most of the trapped people in the fire scene can be safely evacuated or escaped from danger by self-rescue.

4. Mastering the correct fire extinguishing method is the guarantee for successfully extinguishing the initial fire

In the face of an initial fire, it is necessary to master the correct fire extinguishing method and use fire extinguishing equipment and fire extinguishing agents scientifically and rationally.

The cooling fire extinguishing method is to spray the fire extinguishing agent directly on the combustibles to reduce the temperature of the combustibles below the ignition point, thereby stopping the combustion. In addition to directly extinguishing fires with cooling methods, water can also be used to cool unburned combustible substances to prevent them from reaching the ignition point and catching fire; water can also be used to cool production devices or containers threatened by fire to prevent them from being deformed or exploded by heat.

Isolation fire extinguishing method is to isolate the burning material from the nearby combustible materials, so as to stop the burning. Such as moving flammable and explosive materials near the fire source to a safe place; taking measures to block and evacuate the spread of flammable and combustible liquids or flammable gases; demolishing flammable buildings adjacent to the fire source to create space to prevent the spread of fire, etc. .

The suffocation fire extinguishing method is to take appropriate measures to prevent air from entering the combustion zone, or dilute the oxygen content in the air with inert gas, so that the burning substance lacks or cuts off oxygen and extinguishes. Using wet quilts, wet sacks, sand, foam and other non-combustible and difficult-to-combustible materials to cover burning objects or seal fire holes and barrel mouths is all suffocation fire extinguishing methods. In addition, if the resident oil pan catches fire, just put the lid on the pot to extinguish the fire. If a liquefied petroleum gas appliance catches fire, first cover the burning appliance with a soaked quilt to suffocate the fire or use a fire extinguisher to spray on the root of the flame, and then close the valve. , In case of backfire and explosion, open the doors and windows to disperse the indoor gas after extinguishing the fire.

The suppression fire extinguishing method is to spray chemical fire extinguishing agent into the combustion zone to participate in the combustion reaction, terminate the chain reaction and stop the combustion. The fire extinguishing agents that can be used in this method include dry powder, foam, and haloalkane fire extinguishing agents.

 

5. Introduction and use of fire extinguishing equipment

At present, there are five kinds of common fire extinguishing equipment: 1211 fire extinguishers, carbon dioxide fire extinguishers, foam fire extinguishers, acid-base fire extinguishers, and dry powder fire extinguishers, among which acid-base fire extinguishers and dry powder fire extinguishers are highly corrosive. The use of fire extinguishers: First of all, tear off the lead seal and pull out the safety pin. For foam fire extinguishers and acid-base fire extinguishers, the cylinder should be turned upside down, shake up and down several times, and be careful not to hurt people when placed after use. New fire extinguisher:

The water-based foam fire extinguisher is suitable for extinguishing the initial fire of flammable solid or liquid, but it cannot extinguish the fire of live equipment. It is widely used in oil fields, oil depots, ships, factories, shops and other places. It is the best way to prevent fires and protect people's lives and property Essential firefighting equipment. The water-based fire extinguisher is equipped with AFFF water film-forming foam fire extinguishing agent and nitrogen gas. It has the advantages of simple operation, high fire extinguishing efficiency, no need to invert it when using it, long validity period, anti-resurgence, double fire extinguishing, etc. It can extinguish combustible solid and liquid. In the event of a fire, it is a must-have fire-fighting product for the development, processing, storage and transportation of wood, bamboo, fabrics, paper and oily substances. Water-based water mist fire extinguisher

Portable water-based fire extinguisher (water mist) In 2008, my country began to promote the new water-based water mist fire extinguisher, which is green and environmentally friendly. After the fire is extinguished, the agent can be 100% biodegradable and will not pollute the surrounding equipment and space; efficient Flame retardant, strong resistance to reflammation; fast fire extinguishing speed, strong permeability, etc., are incomparable to previous fire extinguishers. Fighting type: ABCEF, that is, it can save all fires except combustible metals, and can insulate 36kv electricity. It is the best choice for fighting electrical fires. Fire extinguishing principle: It belongs to the physical fire extinguishing mechanism. The agent can form and expand a thin water film on the surface of combustibles, so as to isolate the combustibles from the air and realize fire extinguishing. Through the atomizing nozzle, fine water mist is sprayed, spreading the fire and evaporating heat, quickly reducing the temperature of the fire, and at the same time reducing the concentration of oxygen in the air in the combustion zone to prevent re-ignition. Good reburn resistance is an incomparable advantage of dry powder fire extinguishers. Other uses: In addition to fire extinguishing, water mist fire extinguishers can also be used for self-rescue on fire. When a fire breaks out, spray the agent in the water mist fire extinguisher on the body and apply it on the head, which can completely avoid the flame damage in ordinary fires and minimize burns in high-temperature fires. Bottle body color: Portable water mist fire extinguishers are different from traditional fire extinguishers. There are three colors of red, yellow and green to choose from. The top and bottom of the bottle of the portable water mist fire extinguisher also have nano-polymer materials, which can emit light at night, so that the fire extinguisher can be found at the first time when there is a fire at night. Storage time: longer, three to six years.

 

6. Escape from fire

When you enter an unfamiliar environment, you must develop the habit of observing fire evacuation safety passages, fire equipment, fire signs, etc. If you encounter an emergency, you will not be in a hurry and deal with it calmly.

1. There is a corresponding safety evacuation diagram behind the door of each office or room. In case of emergency, you can follow the instructions to quickly reach the safety exit. If you are in a high-rise building, you should not use the elevator after a fire. It may be blocked due to a power outage, resulting in being trapped. The best way is to choose stairs. 2. Each high-rise building will have a fire display system on the stairs of each floor. You can use this system to know which floor is on fire, so that you can take corresponding measures. 3. According to the survey statistics, about 70% of the people who died in the fire were killed by smoke or choked to death. Therefore, in a fire, how to reduce the toxic smoke inhaled by oneself is very important. In case of a fire, if the place is equipped with If you wear a fire mask (similar to a gas mask), it should be put on correctly in the shortest possible time. If not, you should find the nearest water source in time, cover your mouth and nose with a cloth dampened with water. Here is a question: how to use wet towels correctly. If you don't use wet towels properly, there's a good chance you won't escape a fire. First soak the towel, then wring it dry until there is no water flow, but it is most suitable to catch the water, then fold it in half three times, cover your mouth and nose tightly, so that you have 4-5 minutes to escape from the fire. If the towel is too dry, it will not be able to cool down the high-temperature gas and filter the smoke. If it is too wet, it is not conducive to your own breathing. When you loosen the towel and breathe, the high-temperature gas and smoke will be inhaled into the lungs. If you need to pass through a fire wall, you should wet your whole body with clothes to reduce the damage to your body caused by the fire of your clothes. If you have a water-based fire extinguisher, spray the agent in the water mist fire extinguisher on your body and apply it on your head, so that you can completely avoid flame damage in ordinary fires and minimize burns in high-temperature fires. 4. If there is a lot of smoke, you should crawl forward and try to get close to the ground, because the smoke is lighter than the air and generally floats above the passage or room. 5. If there is a fire and you are on the second or third floor and cannot choose the passage to go downstairs, you can choose drain pipes or other climbing objects for equipment, and you can also use indoor items such as bed sheets and ropes to tie ropes to save yourself. If the situation is urgent and there is nothing available, you can grab the railing or window edge, make your body perpendicular to the ground, and fall down freely, which can reduce the jump height and reduce the damage to your body. 6. When escaping, if you encounter a door, don’t open it easily if you don’t know it. The fire may be burning behind the door. You can touch the door handle with your hands first. If the temperature is high, Do not open it easily, it may cause the fire to spread. How to prevent getting burned: At the scene of a fire, if you are on fire, you must not run casually, because a small wind will form when you run, and a large amount of fresh air will rush to the person on fire, and it will burn more and more vigorously like a fan for a stove : People who are on fire run around, and they will also bring the fire to other places, causing new burning points. When the body is on fire, the clothes are always burned first, and the most important thing at this time is to try to take off the clothes first. If it is too late to take off your clothes, you can also lie down on the ground and roll around to suppress the fire on your body. If other people are present, water can be poured on the burning person, and the burning clothes can be taken off or torn off.

When a family fire breaks out, how to escape calmly and effectively under the pursuit of the fire demon? It is advisable to prepare four "treasures" at home: a household fire extinguisher, an escape rope, a flashlight and a smoke mask , for emergency and emergency needs. Any big fire starts with a small fire. If you have a fire extinguisher at home and can operate it skillfully, then when a spark ignites, it can be extinguished in time. Once the fire is out of control, escape must be considered first. At this time, if you live above the third floor, the passage of the stairs is blocked, or the wooden stairs are burned, in this case, if there is a steel core escape rope in your home, you can buckle the rope in the cabinet or window. On the frame, climb down along the rope, and you can escape smoothly. Not long ago, a residential fire broke out on Guangxi South Road in Shanghai. When all the stairs were burned down, an elderly couple happened to have a rope in their home, and the old couple escaped with this rope. The family next door had no rope, and only 2 of the 4 escaped. There was a fire at night, and after the electric circuit burned out, the house was pitch-black, especially in sleep, before I figured out what was going on, the house was already in flames. At this time, a flashlight is needed to illuminate a way to escape. The smoke in the fire scene is poisonous, and many victims were suffocated to death by the smoke. If you have a gas mask at home, you can escape the poisonous smoke by wearing a gas mask at a critical moment. Keep these 4 things at home, put them in a handy place, and you will be able to use them when you encounter a crisis, which will do you a big favor.